AAP – aap
Australian Associated Press — Australia
AEC – aec
Australian Electoral Commission · Australia
AFP – afp
Agence France-Presse
ANA – ana
Athens News Agency (ANA) · Greece
ANSA – ansa
ANSA (Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata) · Italy
AP – ap
Associated Press
APA – apa
APA – Austria Presse Agentur (Austria Press Agency) · Austria
Agence Europe – ageu
Agence Europe ·
Agerpres – ager
Agenția Română de Presă (Romanian Press Agency) · Romania
Alþýðublaðið – alth
Alþýðublaðið (The People's Paper) · Iceland
Annuaire statistique – asl
Annuaire statistique du Luxembourg (Statistical Yearbook of Luxembourg) — Luxembourg
Archivio Storico delle Elezioni – archivio
Archivio Storico delle Elezioni (Historical Election Archive) – Ministero dell'Interno (Interior ministry) · Italy
Assemblée Nationale – asn
Assemblée Nationale (French National Assembly) · France
Australian Parliamentary Handbook – aph
Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia · Australia
Australian Politics and Elections Database – ape-db
Australian Politics and Elections Database · Australia
Austria-Forum – aufo
Austria Forum - Das österreichische Wissensnetz · Austria
BBC News – bbc
BBC News Online ·
BBCM – bbcm
BBC Monitoring ·
BNS – bns
Baltic News Sevice · Estonia
BTA – bta
Bulgarian News Agency (BTA) · Bulgaria
Barber ea. (2008) – barber
Barber, Stephen, Christopher Lawley, Scott Bennett, and Gerard Newman. 2008. Federal election results 1901–2007. Parliament of Australia -- Parliamentary Library. · Australia
Benoit and Laver (2006) – benoit
Benoit, Kenneth, and Michael Laver. 2006. Party policy in modern democracies. Routledge. ·
Bergman (1993) – berg-93
Bergman, Torbjörn. 1993. "Constitutional Design and Government Formation: The Expected Consequences of Negative Parliamentarism." Scandinavian Political Studies 16(4): 285-304.
Beyme (1970) – be-70
Beyme, Klaus von. 1970. Die parlamentarischen Regierungssysteme in Europa. München: R. Piper & Co. Verlag.
Biroul Electoral Central – bec
Biroul Electoral Central (Central Election Bureau Romania) · Romania
Bloomberg – bb
Bloomberg ·
Boix ea. (2013) – boix-2013
Boix, Carles, Michael Miller, and Sebastian Rosato. 2013. “A Complete Data Set of Political Regimes, 1800–2007.” Comparative Political Studies 46(12):1523–54. ·
Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) – boe
Boletín Oficial del Estado (Official Bulletin of the State) · Spain
British Electoral Facts 1989 – craig
Craig, Fred. 1989. British electoral facts, 1832-1987. Aldershot: Gower. — United Kingdom
British Electoral Facts 2006 – bef-7
Thrasher, Michael, and Colin Rallings. 2009. British electoral facts. Total Politics. — United Kingdom
British Political Facts – bpf
Butler, David, and Gareth Butler. 2010. British political facts. 10th ed. Palgrave Macmillan. — United Kingdom
Budge ea. (2001) and Klingemann ea. (2006) – cmp
Budge, Ian, Hans-Dieter Klingemann, Andrea Volkens, Judith Bara, and Eric Tanenbaum. 2001. Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Andrea Volkens, Judith Bara, Ian Budge, and Michael McDonald. 2006. Mapping Policy Preferences II: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, European Union, and OECD 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ·
Bugajski (2002) – buga
Bugajski, Janusz. 2002. Political parties of eastern europe: a guide to politics in the post-communist era. M.E.Sharpe.
Bundesamt für Statistik – bafs
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft - Bundesamt für Statistik (Statistical Office of Switzerland) · Switzerland
Bundeskanzleramt – bka
Bundeskanzleramt (Federal Chancellery) · Austria
Bundesministerium für Inneres – bmi
Bundesministerium für Inneres (Federal Ministry for the Interior) – Österreichische Bundeswahlbehörde (Austrian Federal Electoral Board) · Austria
Bundesversammlung – buv
Die Bundesversammlung - Das Schweizer Parlament (The Federal Assembly - The Swiss Parliament) · Switzerland
Bundeswahlleiter – bwl
Bundeswahlleiter (Federal Returning Officer) – Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office of Germany) · Germany
CBS – cbs-isr
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics · Israel
CBS StatLine – cbs
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek – StatLine databank (Statistics Netherlands – StatLine database) · Netherlands
CEC – cec
Central Elections Committee · Israel
CEVIPOL – cevipol
CEVIPOL Ressources – Electoral results · Belgium
CHISOLS dataset – chisols
Mattes, Michaela, Brett Ashley Leeds, and Naoko Matsumura. 2016. “Measuring Change in Source of Leader Support: The CHISOLS Dataset.” Journal of Peace Research 53(2): 259–67. ·
CIK – cik
Centralna Izbiratelna Komisija (Bulgarian Central Election Commission) · Bulgaria
CLEA – clea-11
Ken Kollman, Allen Hicken, Daniele Caramani, and David Backer. Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA;, September 14, 2011 [dataset]. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies [producer and distributor]. ·
CP – cp
The Canadian Press – La Presse Canadienne — Canada
Camera Deputaţilor – cdep
Camera Deputaţilor (Chamber of Deputies) · Romania
Camera dei deputati – camera
Camera dei deputati · Italy
Castles and Mair (1984) – castles
Castles, Francis G. and Peter Mair. 1984. “Left-right political scales: Some ‘expert’ judgements.” European Journal of Political Research 12(1):73–88.
Centrālā vēlēšanu komisija – cvk
Centrālā vēlēšanu komisija (Central Election Commission Latvia) · Latvia
Chapel Hill expert survey series – chess
Chapel Hill expert survey series (CHESS): Hooghe, Liesbet et al. 2010. “Reliability and validity of the 2002 and 2006 Chapel Hill expert surveys on party positioning.” European Journal of Political Research 49(5):687–703. Steenbergen, Marco, and Gary Marks. 2007. “Evaluating expert judgments.” European Journal of Political Research 46(3):347–366. Ryan Bakker, Catherine de Vries, Erica Edwards, Liesbet Hooghe, Seth Jolly, Gary Marks, Jonathan Polk, Jan Rovny, Marco Steenbergen, and Milada Vachudova. 2012. "Measuring Party Positions in Europe: The Chapel Hill Expert Survey Trend File, 1999-2010.” Party Politics (forthcoming). ·
Chief Electoral Officer of Canada – ceoc
Chief Electoral Officer of Canada · Canada
Christiansen and Damgaard (2008) – chr-08
Christiansen, Flemming Juul and Erik Damgaard. 2008. “Parliamentary Opposition under Minority Parliamentarism: Scandinavia.” The Journal of Legislative Studies 14(1-2):46–76. — Denmark Norway Sweden
Comissão Nacional de Eleições – cne
CNE – Comissão Nacional de Eleições (Portuguese National Election Commission) · Portugal
Conrad and Golder (2010) – conrad
Conrad, Courtenay R., and Sona N. Golder. 2010. “Measuring government duration and stability in Central Eastern European democracies.” European Journal of Political Research 49(1):119–150.
Corriere – corriere
Corriere della Sera · Italy
Cyprus Mail – cymail
Cyprus Mail · Cyprus
DR – dr
DR (Danish Broadcasting Corporation) · Denmark
Dalton (2008) – da-08
Dalton, Russell J. 2008. “The quantity and the quality of party systems: Party system polarization, its measurement, and its consequences.” Comparative Political Studies 41(7):899–920.
Danmarks Statistik valgside – valgside
Danmarks Statistik valgside (Statistics Denmark election page) · Denmark
Danske Encyklopædi – dsd
Den Store Danske Encyklopædi (The Great Danish Encyclopedia) · Denmark
Datenhandbuch Bundestag – dhbt
Datenhandbuch zur Geschichte des Deutschen Bundestages · Germany
Deutsche Welle – dw
Deutsche Welle · Germany
DoE Ireland – eie
Department of Environment Ireland · Ireland
Dow Jones Institutional News – dj
Dow Jones Institutional News
Državna volilna komisija – voltive
Državna volilna komisija (National Electoral Commission Slovenia) · Slovenia
Dutch News – dn
Dutch News · Netherlands
Döring (2007) – doering
Döring, Holger. 2007. ‘The Composition of the College of Commissioners’. European Union Politics 8(2):207–228. ·
Döring (2013) – doe-13
Döring, Holger. 2013. ‘The Collective Action of Data Collection: A Data Infrastructure on Parties, Elections and Cabinets’. European Union Politics 14(1):161–78. ·
EED – eed
European Election Database ·
EES (2009) – ees
European Parliament Election Study 2009, Voter Study, Advance Release, 30/06/2010. ·
EJPR Yearbook – ejpr
European Journal of Political Research: Political Data Yearbook
ELTA – elta
Lietuvos naujienų agentūra (Lithuanian News Agency) · Lithuania
EP election report – ep
European Parliament (EP) election report (based on official statistics)
EPE - HoC Library – epe-rp
European Parliament Elections – House of Commons Library · United Kingdom
ERR – err
Eesti Rahvusringhääling (Estonian Public Broadcasting) · Estonia
EU Profiler – euprofiler
Trechsel, Alexander H., and Peter Mair. 2009. “When Parties (also) Position Themselves: An Introduction to the EU Profiler.” EUI - RSCAS 2009/65; EUDO - European Union Democracy Observatory. ·
Eduskunta – edu
Eduskunta – Riksdagen (Parliament of Finland) · Finland
El País – elpais
El País · Spain
Elecciones y Partidos Políticos – epp
Elecciones y Partidos Políticos (Elections and Political Parties in Spain) · Spain
Election Resources – er
Álvarez-Rivera, Manuel – Election Resources ·
Election Statistics: UK 1918-2007 – hcl-rp
Election Statistics: UK 1918-2007 – Research Paper 08/12 – House of Commons Library · United Kingdom
ElectionGuide – eg
Election Guide: Democracy assistance and election news ·
Elections in Malta – doi
Elections in Malta – Department of Information – Government of Malta · Malta – elec-irl · Ireland
Electoral Commission – ec
The Electoral Commission (United Kingdom) · United Kingdom
Electoral Commission – ec-nz
Electoral Commission (New Zealand) · New Zealand
Electoral Commission Malta – ecm
Electoral Commission of Malta · Malta
Electoral Studies – es
Electoral Studies – Notes on Recent Elections ·
Elklit (2002) – elklit
Elklit, Jørgen. 2002. “The politics of electoral system development and change: The Danish case.” In The evolution of electoral and party systems in the Nordic countries, New York: Agathon Press, p. 15-66. — Denmark
Essex CEE elections database – essex
Database on Central and Eastern European Elections: Project on Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Post-Communist Europe ·
FAZ – faz
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung · Germany
Flora (1983) – flora-83
Flora, Peter. 1983. State, Economy, and Society in Western Europe 1815-1975: A Data Handbook in Two Volumes -- Volume I: The Growth of Mass Democracies and Welfare States. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus Verlag.
Folketing – folketing
Folketing election results and governments · Denmark
France Politique – frpo
France Politique · France
Gallagher (1991) – gall-91
Gallagher, Michael. 1991. “Proportionality, disproportionality and electoral systems.” Electoral Studies 10(1):33–51.
Gallagher (2009) – gall-09
Gallagher, Michael. 2009. Irish elections 1948-77: Results and analysis. Sources for the study of Irish politics 2. London. Routledge. — Ireland
Gallagher (2011) – gall-11
Gallagher, Michael and Michael Marsh. 2011.How Ireland Voted 2011: the full story of Ireland's earthquake election. Basingstoke. Palgrave Macmillan. — Ireland
Gallagher and Mitchell (2005) – ga-mi-05
Gallagher, Michael, and Paul Mitchell, eds. 2005. The politics of electoral systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Guardian – gu
The Guardian ·
Guðmundur and Magnússon (1997) – gud97
Guðmundur, Jónsson, and Magnús S. Magnússon. 1997. Hagskinna : sögulegar hagtölur um Ísland -- Icelandic historical statistics. Reykjavík: Hagstofa Íslands. — Iceland
HINA – hina
HINA – Hrvatska izvještajna novinska agencija (Croatian News Agency) · Croatia
Haber Turk – hp
Haber Turk · Turkey
Hagstofa Íslands – hagstofa
Hagstofa Íslands (Statistics Iceland) · Iceland
Historisches Lexikon – his
Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz (Historical Dictionary of Switzerland) · Switzerland
Hix ea. (2007) – hix
Hix, Simon, Abdul G. Noury, and Gérard Roland. 2007. Democratic Politics in the European Parliament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ·
Hopkin (2005) – hopkin
Hopkin, Jinathan. 2005. “Spain: Proportional Representation with Majoritarian Outcomes.” In The politics of electoral systems, edited by Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p 375-94. — Spain
Hoyland ea. (2009) – hoyland
Høyland, Bjørn, Indraneel Sircar, and Simon Hix. 2009. “An Automated Database of the European Parliament.” European Union Politics 10(1):143–152. ·
Huber and Inglehart (1995) – huber
Huber, John, and Roland Inglehart. 1995. “Expert Interpretations of Party Space and Party Locations in 42 Societies.” Party Politics 1(1):73–111.
Hughes (1977) – hug-77
Hughes, Colin. 1977. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1965-1974. Canberra: Australian National University Press. — Australia
Hughes (1986) – hug-86
Hughes, Colin. 1986. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1975-1984. Sydney ;New York: Australian National University Press. — Australia
Hughes and Graham (1968) – hug-68
Hughes, Colin, and Bruce D. Graham. 1968. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1890-1964. Canberra: Australian National University Press. — Australia
Höbelt (1999) – hoe-99
Höbelt, Lothar. 1999. Von der vierten Partei zur dritten Kraft: die Geschichte des VdU. Graz: Stocker. — Austria
IBZ – ibz
IBZ – Federale Overheidsdienst Binnenlandse Zaken – Service public fédéral Intérieur – Föderaler Öffentlicher Dienst Inneres · Belgium
IZBORI – izbori
Dzavno Izborno Povjerenstvo Republike Hrvatske - State Electoral Commission of Croatia · Croatia
Iceland Review – review
Iceland Review online · Iceland
Indridason (2005) – indridason
Indridason, Indridi H. 2005. “A theory of coalitions and clientelism: Coalition politics in Iceland, 1945–-2000.” European Journal of Political Research 44(3):439–464. — Iceland
Institutul National de Statistica – insse
Institutul National de Statistica (National Institute of Statistics Romania) · Romania
International IDEA – idea
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) ·
Iris Oifigiúil – iris
Iris Oifigiúil (Irish State News) · Ireland
Irish Times – irti
The Irish Times · Ireland
JTA – jta
Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) · Israel
Jack Vowles – vow
Jack Vowles New Zealand Elections Data — New Zealand
Jacobs (1989) – jacobs
Jacobs, Francis, ed. 1989. Western European political parties : a comprehensive guide. Harlow, Essex, UK: Longman.
Jiji Press – jiji
Jiji Press English News Service · Japan
Kalaallit Nunaata Radio – knr
Kalaallit Nunaata Radio (Greenlandic Broadcasting Corporation) · Denmark
Kathimerini – kath
Kathimerini (Η Καθημερινή) · Greece
Kato and Kannon (2008) – kato-08
Kato, Junko, and Yuto Kannon. 2008. “Coalition Governments, Party Switching, and the Rise and Decline of Parties: Changing Japanese Party Politics since 1993.” Japanese Journal of Political Science 9(3):341–365. — Japan
Keesing's – keesings
Keesing's record of world events ·
Kiesraad – kiesraad
Kiesraad (Electoral Council Netherlands) · Netherlands
Knesset – knesset
Knesset Elections Results · Israel
Kohno (1997) – koh-97
Kohno, Masaru. 1997. Japan’s postwar party politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. — Japan
Kringvarp Føroya – kvf
Kringvarp Føroya (Broadcasting Corporation Faeroe Islands, Denmark) · Denmark
Kyodo – kyodo
Kyodo News · Japan
LETA – leta
Nacionālā ziņu aģentūra LETA (National News Agency LETA) · Latvia
Laakso and Taagepera (1979) – la-ta-79
Laakso, Markku, and Rein Taagepera. 1979. “Effective number of parties: Measure with application to West Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 12(1):3–27.
Landskjörstjórn – lis
Landskjörstjórn - National Electoral Commission Iceland · Iceland
Latvians Online – lo
Latvians Online · Latvia
Lijphart (1994) – lij-94
Lijphart, Arend. 1978. “The Dutch electoral system in comparative perspective: extreme proportional representation, multipartism, and the failure of electoral reform.” The Netherlands’ Journal of Sociology 14:115–133. — Netherlands
Lithuania Tribune – lt
The Lithuania Tribune · Lithuania
MDI – mdi
Ministero dell'Interno - Ministry of Internal Affairs (Italy) · Italy
MIC – mic
Ministry of Internal Affairs (Japan) · Japan
MMC – mmc
RTV Slowenien öffentliche Institution, Kolodvorska 2, Ljubljana, Slowenien · Slovenia
MTI-Eco – mti-eco
MTI-Econews · Hungary
Mackie and Craig (1985) – macr-85
Mackie, Thomas, and Fred W. S Craig. 1985. Europe votes 2: European Parliamentary election results 1979-1984. 2nd ed. West Sussex, UK: Parliamentary Research Services.
Mackie and Craig (1990) – macr-90
Mackie, Thomas, and Fred W. S Craig. 1990. Europe votes 3: European Parliamentary election results 1989. 2nd ed. Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited.
Mackie and Rose (1991) – mackie
Mackie, Thomas, and Richard Rose. 1991. The international almanac of electoral history. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.
McHale (1983) – mchale
McHale, Vincent E., ed. 1983a. Political Parties of Europe: Albania -- Norway. Greenwood Press.; McHale, Vincent E., ed. 1983b. Political Parties of Europe: Poland -- Yugoslavia. Greenwood Press.
Members European Parliament – mep
Members of the European Parliament ( ·
Ministerio del Interior – mi
Ministerio del Interior (Ministry of Internal Affairs) · Spain
Ministry of Interior (Greece) – mig
Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Interior · Greece
Ministère de l'Intérieur (Luxembourg) – epl
Ministère de l'Intérieur - Le site officiel des élections au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Ministry of internal affairs - Official election results of Luxembourg) · Luxembourg
Monitor Polski – mp
Monitor Polski · Poland
Morgan (1976) – morgan
Morgan, Michael-John. 1976. “The modelling of governmental coalition formation: A policy-based approach with interval measurement.” Dissertation, University of Michigan.
Morgunblaðið – mbl
Morgunblaðið (The Morning Paper) · Iceland
Müller and Strøm (2000) – mueller
Müller, Wolfgang C., and Kaare Strøm, eds. 2000. Coalition governments in Western Europe. Oxford University Press.
Müller-Rommel ea. (2008) – mue-rom
Müller-Rommel, Ferdinand, Philipp Harfst, Henrike Schultze, and Katja Fettelschoß. 2008. “Parteienregierungen in Mittel- und Osteuropa: Empirische Befunde im Ländervergleich 1990 bis 2008.” Zeitschrift für Parlamentsfragen 39(4):810–831.
NZPA – nzpa
New Zealand Press Association · New Zealand
NZZ – nzz
Neue Zürcher Zeitung · Switzerland
National News Agency - AGERPRES – agerpres
National News Agency - AGERPRES (Romania) · Romania
New York Times (NYT) – nyt
New York Times Article Archive ·
New Zealand Parliament – nz-parl
New Zealand Parliament · New Zealand
New Zealand Yearbook – yb-nzl
New Zealand Official Yearbook — New Zealand
Nohlen and Stöver (2010) – no-2010
Nohlen, Dieter, and Philip Stöver, eds. 2010. Elections in Europe: A data handbook. Baden-Baden:Nomos.
Nohlen ea. (2001) – no-2001
Nohlen, Dieter, Florian Grotz, and Christof Hartmann, eds. 2001. Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A data handbook. Oxford University Press.
Nohlen ea. (2005) – no-2005
Nohlen, Dieter, ed. 2005. Elections in the Americas: A data handbook. Oxford University Press. — Australia New Zealand
Northern Ireland Elections – ark
Nicholas Whyte – Northern Ireland Elections · United Kingdom
Országos Választási Bizottság – ovb
Országos Választási Bizottság (National Election Committee Hungary) · Hungary
PACN – pacn
PACN – Pacific News Agency Service — New Zealand
PARLINE IPU – parline
Inter-Parliamentary Union's database on national parliaments (PARliaments onLINE) ·
Paloheimo (1984) – pa-84
Paloheimo, Heikki. 1984. Governments in Democratic Capitalist States 1950-1983: A Data Handbook. Turku: University of Turku, Department of Sociology and Political Science. — Finland
ParlGov database (Döring and Manow 2019) – parlgov
Döring, Holger and Philip Manow. 2019. Parliaments and governments database (ParlGov): Information on parties, elections and cabinets in modern democracies. ·
ParlInfo Canada – pica
ParlInfo – Parliament of Canada · Canada
Parlement & Politiek – papo
Parlement & Politiek · Netherlands
Parliamentary Handbook of Australia (2011) – aph-11
Parliamentary Library 2011: 43rd Parliament. Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia 2011. · Australia
Parteien-Handbuch – phb
Stöss, Richard. 1986. Parteien-Handbuch: Die Parteien der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1945-1980. Sonderausgabe. Opladen: Westdeutsche Verlag. — Germany
Pavel and Huiu (2003) – pav-03
Pavel, Dan, and Iulia Huiu. 2003. “Nu putem reuși decît împreună” O istorie analitică a Convenției Democratice, 1989-2000. Iași: Polirom. — Romania
Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza – pkw
Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza (National Election Commission, Poland) · Poland
Polish News Bulletin – pnbbae
Polish News Bulletin · Poland
Politica – sonntag
Lars Sonntag: Politica – Governments, elections and party leaders · – pol-hu · Hungary
Polityka – polityka
Polityka · Poland
Polskie Radio – pr
Polskie Radio (Polish Radio) · Poland
Portail du Government – fragov
Portail du Government -- (French Government) · France
Przeworski (2013) – prz-13
Przeworski, Adam. 2013. “Political Institutions and Political Events (PIPE) Data Set. Department of Politics, New York University.” ·
Qinersineq - – qin
Qinersineq · Denmark
RFE/RL – rferl
Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty ·
RNW – rnw
Radio Netherlands Worldwide · Netherlands
RNZ – rnz
Radio New Zealand · New Zealand
RTÉ – rte
Raidió Teilifís Éireann · Ireland
Ray (1999) – ray
Ray, Leonard. 1999. “Measuring party orientations towards European integration: Results from an expert survey.” European Journal of Political Research 36(2):283–306. ·
Regeringen – reg-se
Regeringens och Regeringskansliets (Swedish Government and the Government Offices) · Sweden
Registrera partibeteckning – rpv
Registrera partibeteckning – Valmyndigheten (Registered parties – Swedish Election Authority) · Sweden
Regjeringen – reg-no
Regjeringen (Norway's Governments) · Norway
Rekisteröidyt puolueet – rpfi
Rekisteröidyt puolueet – Registrerade partier (Registered parties Finland) · Finland
Reuters – reuters
Reuters ·
Rijksoverheid – ro
Rijksoverheid (Dutch government) · Netherlands
Riksdag – riksdag
Sveriges Riksdag · Sweden
Rokkan and Meyriat (1969) – rokkan
Rokkan, Stein, and Jean Meyriat, eds. 1969. International guide to electoral statistics. The Hague, Paris: Mouton.
Rose and Munro (2003) – rose
Rose, Richard, and Neil Munro. 2003. Elections and parties in new European democracies. Washington D.C.: CQ Press.
Résultats électoraux en France – ref
Résultats électoraux en France (Election results France) – Ministère de l'Intérieur (Minister of the Interior) · France
SITA – sita
SITA Slovenska Tlacova Agentura (Slovak News Agency) · Slovakia
STA – sta
Slovenska tiskovna agencija (Slovenian Press Agency) · Slovenia
STT – stt
Suomen Tietotoimisto (Finnish News Agency) · Finland
Schröder (2014) – vs14
Schröder, Valentin. 2014. “Is Negative Parliamentarism Sometimes No Parliamentarism after All? Evidence on Tiered Systems of Power Separation from the Weimar Republic, 1920–1933.” In Salamanca, Spain. — Germany
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft – swiss
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation) · Switzerland
Sejm RP – sejm
Sejm Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej (Parliament of the Republic Poland, first chamber) · Poland
Skjæveland (2003) – skja
Skjæveland, Asbjørn. 2003. ‘Government Formation in Denmark 1953-1998’. Aarhus: Forlaget Politica. — Denmark
Slovak Spectator – spectator
The Slovak Spectator · Slovakia
Sofia News Agency – sna
Sofia News Agency · Bulgaria
Statistics Bureau Japan – sb-jpn
Statistics Bureau Japan · Japan
Statistisches Jahrbuch Österreich – yb-aut
Statistisches Jahrbuch Österreich (Statistical Yearbook of Austria) · Austria
Statistisk sentralbyrå – seby
Statistisk sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) · Norway
Statistisk Årbog – yb-dnk
Statistisk Årbog (Statistical Yearbook of Denmark) · Denmark
Statistisk Årbok – yb-nor
Statistisk Årbok (Statistical Yearbook of Norway) · Norway
Statistisk årsbok – yb-swe
Statistisk årsbok för Sverige (Statistical Yearbook of Sweden) · Sweden
Statistični urad – su
Statistični urad Republike Slovenije (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia) · Slovenia
Store norske leksikon – snl
Store norske leksikon (Great Norwegian encyclopedia) · Norway
Stortinget – storting
Stortinget (Norwegian Parliament) · Norway
Stortingsvalget – nos-sv
Norges Offisielle Statistikk – Stortingsvalget (Norwegian Official Statistics – Storting Election) — Norway
Sundberg (2002) – suj-02
Sundberg, Jan. 2002. “The electoral system of Finland: Old, and working well.” In The evolution of electoral and party systems in the Nordic countries. New York: Agathon Press, p 67-100. — Finland
Sveriges officiella statistik – sos
Sveriges officiella statistik – Statistiska centralbyrån (Official Statistics of Sweden – Statistics Sweden) — Sweden
Svåsand(1985) – sva-85
Svåsand, Lars. 1985. Politiske partier. Oslo: Tiden Norsk Forlag. — Norway
Swissinfo – sw-in
Swissinfo – Swiss Broadcasting Corporation · Switzerland
Sénat – senat
Sénat – French Senate · France
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Taagepera, Rein. 1997. “Effective number of parties for incomplete data.” Electoral Studies 16(2):145–151.
Taagepera and Shugart (1989) – taag-89
Taagepera, Rein, and Matthew Soberg Shugart. 1989. Seats and votes: The effects and determinants of electoral systems. Yale University Press.
Tageblatt – tagbla
Tageblatt · Luxembourg
Te Ara – teara
Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand · New Zealand
The Canadian Encyclopedia – tce
The Canadian Encyclopedia · Canada
The Globe and Mail – glob
The Globe and Mail · Canada
The Local – local
The Local (various countries) ·
The Local Sweden – tlse
The Local Europe AB - Sweden · Sweden
The New Zealand Herald – nzhe
The New Zealand Herald · New Zealand
The Times – times
The Times · United Kingdom
Tilastokeskus – tila
Tilastokeskus – Statistikcentralen (Statistics Finland) · Finland
Times of Malta – tom
Times of Malta · Malta
Törnudd (1968) – toer68
Törnudd, Klaus. 1968. The electoral system of Finland. London: Hugh Evelyn. — Finland
Trinity College Dublin – tcd
Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin · Ireland
Trinity College Dublin – tc
Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin · Ireland
TÜİK – tuik
TÜİK Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (Turkish Statistical Institute) · Turkey
UK Office of the European Parliament – ukeu
The United Kingdom Office of the European Parliament. · United Kingdom
Urwin (1970) – urwin
Urwin, Derek W. 1970. Elections in Western Nations, 1945-1968. Strathclyde.
VALG – valg
Kommunal- OG Regionaldepartementet - Stortingsvalget (Elections to the Storting) · Norway
Vaalit – vaalit
Vaalit – Oikeusministeriö (Elections – Ministery of Justice Finland) · Finland
Vabariigi Valimiskomisjon – vvk
Vabariigi Valimiskomisjon (Estonian National Electoral Committee) · Estonia
Valmyndigheten – val
Valmyndigheten (Swedish Election Authority) · Sweden
Valtioneuvosto – valt
Valtioneuvosto – Statsrådet (Finnish Government) · Finland
Vlada Republike Slovenije – vlada
Vlada Republike Slovenije (Government of the Republic of Slovenia) · Slovenia
Volebním serveru ČSÚ – volby
Volebním serveru ČSÚ (CZSO's Election Server) – Český statistický úřad (Czech Statistical Office) · Czech Republic
Vyriausioji rinkimų komisija – vrk
Lietuvos Respublikos vyriausioji rinkimų komisija (The Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Lithuania) · Lithuania
Wahlen in Deutschland – wid
Valentin Schröder: Wahlen in Deutschland · Germany
Wiesehomeier and Benoit (2009) – wiese
Wiesehomeier, Nina, and Kenneth Benoit. 2009. “Presidents, Parties and Policy Competition.” The Journal of Politics 71(4):1435–1447. ·
Wikipedia – w
Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia ·
Wilson (1985) – wilson
Wilson, J. O. 1985. New Zealand parliamentary record 1840-1984. Wellington: V.R. Ward, Government Printer. — New Zealand
World Statesmen – ws is an online encyclopedia of the leaders of nations and territories ·
YLE – yle
Yleisradio Oy (Finnish Broadcasting Company) · Finland
Yomiuri Shimbun – yomiuri
The Daily Yomiuri, The Yomiuri Shimbun · Japan
Yüksek Seçim Kurulu – ysk
Yüksek Seçim Kurulu (Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey) — Turkey
Zeit – zeit
ZEIT Online · Austria Germany – cy-gov
Cyprus Government Web Portal (G.W.P) · Cyprus
ddp Deutscher Depeschendienst – ddp
ddp Deutscher Depeschendienst (German press agency) — Germany
dpa Deutsche Presse-Agentur – dpa
dpa Deutsche Presse-Agentur (German Press Agency) · Germany – dere (VRT) · Belgium – md
Parliamentary Election Results, 1921-2013 · Malta – verk
Nederlandse verkiezingsuitslagen 1918-nu (Dutch election results since 1918) · Netherlands
personal communication – pc
personal communication with country expert -- see comment observation for more details
ÅSUB – asub
Ålands statistik- och utredningsbyrå (Statistics and Research Åland) — Finland
Österreichische Nationalbibliothek – onb
Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (Austrian National Library) · Austria
Österreichisches Parlament – oepa
Österreichisches Parlament (Austrian Parliament) · Austria
ČTK – ctk
Česká tisková kancelář (Czech News Agency) · Czech Republic
Český rozhlas 7 – cr7
Český rozhlas 7 – Radio Praha (Radio Prague) · Czech Republic
Štatistický úrad Slovenskej republiky – ssr
Štatistický úrad Slovenskej republiky (Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic) · Slovakia