Country notes

Summary of main institutional rules and respective changes, data and news sources, references, coding comments, open questions and remaining tasks.

Electoral system information from CLEA country descriptions (Appendix I), ESCE country summaries, IPU-PARLINE electoral system summary, Mackie and Rose (1991), Rokkan and Meyriat (1969)

Cabinet information in Müller and Strøm (2000), see also ERDDA.se data.

Country information about democratisation from Boix ea. (2013).

Abbreviations — proportional representation (PR), single transferable vote (STV)

Additional sourcesV-Dem and PIPE data – female suffrage (🔗)


Australia

Information

  • Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  • head of state is the monarch of UK
  • independence in 1901
  • full male suffrage by 1900, female suffrage in 1902
  • alternative vote (AV) introduced in 1918

Data sources online

News in English:

References

  • Colin Hughes, und Bruce Desmond Graham. 1968. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1890-1964. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Hughes, Colin. 1977. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1965-1974. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • ———. 1986. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1975-1984. Sydney?;;New York: Australian National University Press.
  • ———. 2002. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1985-1999. Annandale N.S.W.: Federation Press.

Coding comments

  • Barber (2008) distinguishes the number of eligible voters between 'enrolled' and 'enrolled divisions'. Enrolled figures represent the total number of eligible voters, while enrolled division figures include only eligible voters in contested districts. The distinction applies to elections between 1901 and 1943.

Todo later

  • coding of the special district Northern territory (see Barber 2008)

Austria

Information

  • Federal parliamentary republic

Data sources online

News in English: - The Local

Open questions

  • number of votes for VGO in 1983 election differ between BMI and statistical yearbook
  • date of acceptance for the resignation of Figl III cabinet needed
  • formal resignation dates for cabinets after 1996 needed, not covered by Müller/Ström 2000

Belgium

Information

  • Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  • full male suffrage in 1893 election, female suffrage in 1948
  • PR (D’Hondt) in 1900

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

  • seat distribution of parties in electoral alliances
    • FDF-PPW alliance in 1991 election
    • PRL/FDF alliance in 1995 election
      • seat distribution
      • informaton about PPW (Pari pour la Wallonie)
    • SPA/Spirit in 2003 election
    • CD&V/N-VA in 2007 election

Coding comments

  • due to plural voting, the number of total votes is higher than the number of electorate in elections from 1904 to 1914
  • data in IBZ and Nohlen/Stöver is not consistent

Bulgaria

Information

  • Unitary parliamentary republic

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • coding of BSP coalitions -- national and EP
    • seat distribution of Democratic Left (1997) and Coalition for Bulgaria (2001, 2005, 2009)
      • esp. seat share of BSP after 2005 election
  • missing cyrillic party names
  • "electorate" 2009 EP election

Todo later

  • double check Blue Coalition EP Elections 2009

Canada

Information

  • Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  • head of state is the monarch of UK
  • full male suffrage by 1900 and female suffrage in 1918

Data sources online

News in English: `

Coding comments

  • the data sources on election results before (and after) 1945 are often incosistent

Switzerland

Information

  • Federal semi-direct democracy under multi-party parliamentary directorial republic
  • full male suffrage in 1848 and female suffrage in 1971
  • two round majority-plurality SMD in 1900
  • PR (Hagenbach-Bischoff) in 1919

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • more information and independent verification about PSU needed

Coding comments

  • number of votes based on adjusted votes ('fiktive Stimmen') calculated by Statistical Office of Switzerland
  • cabinets are coded for each legislative term
    • no prime minister position is attached to a party -- one year Bundespräsident is primus inter pares
    • 'starting_date' is the election of the Bundesrat

Todo later

  • add French names to all parties
  • add largest party no seats for election before 1967 (source needed)

Cyprus

Information

  • only presidential system in ParlGov

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

  • For election 2001 official sources are needed; votes according to parline do not add up!
  • Informations about the party 'Office of Citizen Rights'

Coding comments

  • Cyprus has a presidential form of government; therefore, cabinet start dates may not coincide with election dates; presidential cabinets are coded according to ParlGov coding rules

Todo later

  • primary sources for wikipedia codings (national elections: votes for parties with no seats!)

Czech Republic

Information

  • Unitary parliamentary republic

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • When crossed members of the rebel faction from ODS to US/DEU? -- January 1998
  • seat distribution LSU alliance 1992

Germany

Information

  • Federal parliamentary republic

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments

  • Elections since 1945
    • Only PR votes provided (no SMD votes from first tier)
    • Before 1990 we don't include the MPs from Berlin (only procedural voting rights)
    • CDU and CSU recorded as alliance with individual results for election data and as CDU/CSU party group for cabinet data
  • Elections 1919 to 1933
    • some parties win additional seats in a national district (upper tier)
    • upper tier votes are not included
    • see details in "Wahlen in Deutschland"
  • confidence votes 1919 to 1933 not coded in ParlGov
    • data recorded in "Formative Stages of German Politics. The Contested Rise of Parliamentary Democracy, 1867-1967" by Philip Manow and Valentin Schröder
  • successor parties from Weimar Republic (1933) to Federal Republic (1945) mainly based on personal continuity of MPs

References

  • Stöss, R., 1986. Parteien-Handbuch: Die Parteien der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1945-1980, Sonderausgabe, Opladen: Westdeutsche Verlag. [core reference on post-war German parties]
  • Lenski, S.-C., 2011. Parteiengesetz und Recht der Kandidatenaufstellung Handkommentar, Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verl.-Ges. [party law]

Denmark

Information

  • Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  • full male suffrage in 1849 election, female suffrage in 1915
  • plurality SMD in 1894
  • cabinet responsibility in 1901
  • PR (D’Hondt) in 1918

Data sources online

News in English:

References

  • Elklit, J., 2002. The politics of electoral system development and change: The Danish case. In The evolution of electoral and party systems in the Nordic countries. New York: Agathon Press, pp. 15-66. [evolution electoral system]

Coding comments

  • 'Grønland og Færøerne' coded as one party to include results of regional parties from Greenland and Faroer Island
  • coding of election results 1901 and 1903 based on Mackie and Rose (1991) due to missing data in Nohlen and Stöver (2010)

Todo later

  • add election results for Greenland and Faroe Islands -- currently coded as one party
  • add causes of government termination and minority support parties from Damgaard (1994)

Spain

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • more detailed information about types of support for minority cabinet
  • information about parliamentary boycott of HB (esp. 1989 election and Gonzalez cabinet)

Coding comments

  • official results include blank votes into valid votes ('Votos Válidos') -- ParlGov 'votes_valid' are based on 'Votos a Candidaturas'

Todo later

  • add parties to electoral alliances of 2009 EP election

Estonia

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • seats EKK alliance members 1995
  • founding of Parempoolsed in 1992 parliament
    • How many members defected?
    • When did the split happen?
  • Eestimaa Rahvalliit -- Eesti Maarahva Erakond
    • coding as one or two parties

Todo later

  • coding of alliance members (eg. RKI 1992)

Finland

Information

  • independence in 1917
  • universal suffrage in 1906
  • PR (D’Hondt) in 1906, 200 seats, single-chamber [no fundamental changes]

Data sources online

News in English:

References

  • Sundberg, J., 2002. The electoral system of Finland: old, and working well. In The evolution of electoral and party systems in the Nordic countries. New York: Agathon Press, p. 67--100. [electoral system evolution]
  • Törnudd, K., 1968. The electoral system of Finland, London: Evelyn. [electoral system evolution]

Open questions

  • number of SD-o MPs supporting Sukselainen II cabinet

Coding comments

Todo later

  • code registration and dissolution of parties since 1969
  • Swedish party names for all parties (if appropriate)

France

Information

  • full male suffrage in 1848 and female suffrage in 1944 (Mackie and Rose 1991, 131-33)
  • two round majority-plurality SMD and PR periods
    • 1889 SMD, 1919 mixed member system, 1928 SMD, 1945 PR, 1958 SMD, 1986 PR, 1988 SMD
  • parliamentary system in 1870 and president elected by both chambers; semi-presidential system in 1958

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments

  • "'Comparativly, France has the most poorly doumented electoral statistics.' This statement of Daniele Caramani (2000) must be underlined for various reasons. (...)" (Nohlen 2010, 670). Hence, our coding may include inconsistencies and would profit from feedback by country experts.
  • Mackie/Rose election data exclude Algeria and the overseas territories and departments
  • Paloheimo (1984) cabinet parties that could not be identified: Gauche Democrats, Movement of Democrats, Payson
  • seat strength for some cabinet parties before 1945 unknown -- eg. Painleve 1925

Open questions

  • How many votes won the Southern League in the legislative election 2012?
  • for pre 1945 Wikipedia list several additional cabinets (no PM or party change), more information needed

Todo later

  • coding composition of parliamentary groups (see Mackie and Rose 1991, 133)

United Kingdom

Information

  • universal suffrage in 1918

Coding comments

  • no statistics about number of invalid votes existing until 1964 (see Thrasher/Rallings 2009)

Data sources online

References

  • Barberis, Peter. 2005. Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations: Parties, Groups and Movements of the 20th Century. New York; London: Continuum.
  • Butler, D., 2010. British Political Facts 10th ed., Palgrave Macmillan.
    • core reference on governments, ministers, parties and MPs
  • Thrasher, M. & Rallings, C., 2009. British Electoral Facts, Total Politics.
    • an updated version of F.W.S. Craig's classical collection of election results in the UK

Open questions 2011 coding -- to be checked and updated

  • Parties

    • Does it make sense to divide the following party?
    • Mackie/Rose mention a party called "United Ireland" on page 442, it is a small minor party with 0-3 seats in the national elections. There are no other sources naming the respective parties. The description of Mackie/Rose regarding the party is: "In 1918 Sinn Féin; from 1918 to 1935 those classified as Irish Nationalist/Anti-Partitionist by Craig, 1981; since 1945 all classified as United Ireland in Rose & !McAllister, 1982, Table 4.3, except for the Social Democratic and Labour Party, listed separately a party 18." Respectively Rose & !McAllister define United Ireland as the parties with following abbreviations: "Nat, Irish LP, Sinn Fein, Rep Lab, Republican, NDP, Irish Unity, SDLP, Rep Clubs, Ind SDLP, IIP". These seem to be all parties from Northern Ireland.
  • Parliaments

    • National Elections in 1945:
    • How to treat votes in two-or three-member constituencies? (1945 18 two-member-districts and one three-member district). In two-member-districts voters have two votes, in three-member districts three.
    • The conservative party, the national and the national liberal in the 1945 (later on only national liberals and conservatives) are coded as an alliance. It seems that they did not contest in the same constituencies (regarding the numbers of contestants in the voting districts and the total number of voting districts) and sources like Craig (1989) or Rose/!McAllister (1982) list the votes for the parties separately, but count them together as Total Nat (Craig 1989).
    • The same applies to our understanding of the alliance between the national liberals and the conservative party beginning with the elections of 1950.
  • Cabinets
    • Churchill III and Eden I governments had Conservative cabinet members only but the party had no majority of seats in parliament. Nevertheless, it had formed an electoral alliance with the National Liberals winning a majority.

Todo later

  • source to validate number of votes cast ('votes_cast') -- data until 1959 needed
  • 'votes_total' needed for 2015 and some earlier elections

Greece

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

  • latin name for Muslim list
  • What is an "Alternative Minister"
  • specification of causes for formation and termination of caretaker governments (Grivas, Zolotas I, Zolotas II)

Todo later

  • unify transliteration of greek party names
  • coding of alliance members for Coalition of the Radical Left in election results
  • add alliance members for 2004 and 2007 election -- latter needs information about seats distribution

Croatia

Data sources online

Open questions

  • 2000 election: 3 no-party seats from ethnic minority district?
  • 2007 election: results also recorded for 10 MMC districts only?

Coding comments

  • official election results are not aggregated at the national level
  • voting results for 10 MMC districts recorded
  • votes cast on alliance level as votes cast for each alliance member do not add up to total votes cast for an alliance

Todo later

  • as of 2013 available data sources are incomplete to meet ParlGov coding rules
    • aggregated number of votes for national, abroad and minority district needed
    • information about all parties with more than 1.0% vote share needed

Hungary

Data sources online

Coding comments

  • 'votes' and 'vote_share' coding based on list votes in territorial constituencies

Ireland

Information

  • independence in 1922
  • STV-PR in 1922

Data sources online

News in English: RTÉ News, The Irish Times

References

  • Barberis, Peter. 2005. Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations: Parties, Groups and Movements of the 20th Century. New York; London: Continuum.
  • Gallagher, Michael. 1993. Irish Elections 1922-44: Results and Analysis. Limerick: PSAI Press.
  • Gallagher, Michael. 2009. Irish Elections 1948-77: Results and Analysis. Routledge.

Coding comments

  • Outgoing chairperson of the lower house is automatically re-elected. Seat is added to the respective party ('data_json' keys: 'seats_uncontested', 'outgoing_chairperson').

Iceland

Information

  • home rule in 1904; sovereignty in 1918; republic in 1944
  • universal suffrage in 1915 election
  • presidential election since 1944

Data sources online

News in English

References

  • Jónsson, Guðmundur and Magnús S. Magnússon, eds. 1997. Hagskinna: Sögulegar Hagtölur Um Ísland -- Icelandic Historical Statistics. First Edition. Reykjavík: Hagstofa Íslands. [election results 1874 to 1991]
  • Hardarson, Ólafur Th. 2002. ‘The Icelandic Electoral System 1844-1999’. Pp. 101–66 in The evolution of electoral and party systems in the Nordic countries. New York: Agathon Press. [evolution electoral system]

Coding comments

  • transcriptions Icelandic letters into ascii: 'th' for 'þ', 'd' for 'ð', 'ae' for 'æ'

Israel

Data sources online

Coding comments

  • ministers without portfolio have cabinet rank, deputy ministers do not have cabinet rank (cf. Kenig 2014, 181)
  • seats for alliance members of United Torah Judaism to be included with a 'data_json' key if available

Italy

Data sources online

News in English:

Coding Comments

  • The Parliamentary seats for foreign Italians and the seat of Aosta Valley are determined separately and must be added to the "normal" italian results

Open Questions

  • coding of The Coalition electoral alliance

Japan

Data sources online

  • http://www.soumu.go.jp/senkyo/senkyo_s/data/index.html
  • http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/archives_e.html

News in English:

Open questions

  • largest party that won no seats missing for most elections
  • double check of party families by country expert
  • change of party affiliations after 1972 election
  • alternative source number of votes and valid votes for 1952 election. inconsistency in Mackie/Rose

Todo later

  • update seat composition of parliament at formation of cabinets with EJPR data
  • description and final coding of cabinet formation and termination 1958 until today
  • add 'seats_smd' to 'data_json'

Lithuania

Status

  • seat level data

Data sources online

  • http://www.vrk.lt/en/

News in English

Open questions

  • seats for Lithuanian Liberal Union and The New Union differ between vrk and Wikipedia/Essex.
  • check party name for Lietuvos demokratu partijos jungtinis sarašas
  • coding of 1990 elections 96 Sajudis candidates
  • party affiliation of prime ministers 'Vagnorius' und 'Abisala'
  • seat strength of Sajudzio koalicija in first four cabinets
  • upper and lower cases of original party names
  • coding of acting prime ministers (see Conrad/Golder 2010, 142)

Todo later

  • add 'seats_smd' to 'data_json'

Luxembourg

Information

  • full male suffrage in 1893 election, female suffrage in 1918

Data sources online

News in English:

Coding comments

  • turnout and electorate (registered votes) numbers not available for 1922-1945 (Nohlen 2010, 1245)
  • multiple votes per voter, 'data_json' keys: 'multiple_votes' and 'votes_total'

Latvia

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • the real original name of E-RP (PartyID: 92)
  • double check coding of electoral alliances, especially whether Harmony Center is a party or an electoral alliance
  • seat strength of parties in electoral alliances
  • seat strength of TPA when member of Gailis cabinet
  • party families for entries 'to code'

Todo later

  • add alliance members for EP elections
  • double check electorate and and total votes for EP 2009 election

Malta

Information

  • self-government in 1947, UK rule in 1958, independence in 1964
  • STV-PR in 1921
    • 1987: one-seat majority for first preference vote majority winner
    • Note: voting not compulsory

Data sources online

News in English:


Netherlands

Information

  • full male suffrage in 1917 and female suffrage in 1919
    • 1970: compulsory voting abolished
  • two round majority-plurality SMD in 1896
  • PR (Hare) in 1918

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • Drees I -- VVD defector party? -- http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabinet-Drees/Van_Schaik

Norway

Information (Rokkan and Meyriat 1969, 262)

  • full male suffrage in 1900 and female suffrage in 1907 (1913)
  • indirect elections in 1815
  • two round majority-plurality SMD in 1906
  • PR (D’Hondt) in 1921

Data sources online

News in English

References

  • Svasand, L., 1985. Politiske partier, Oslo: Tiden Norsk Forlag. [parties]
  • Nordby, T., 1985. Storting og regjering 1945-1985: Institusjoner, rekruttering, Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. [cabinets]
  • Aardal, B., 2002. Electoral Systems in Norway. In The evolution of electoral and party systems in the Nordic countries. New York: Agathon Press, pp. 167-224. [evolution electoral system]

Todo later

  • code results for joint lists
  • update pre 1973 election data with results from official election reports
  • code all cabinet appointment and resignation dates from regjeringen.no

New Zealand

Information

  • self-government (dominion) in 1907
  • full male suffrage in 1879 and female suffrage in 1893
  • plurality SMD in 1853 (majority-plurality SMD in 1908 and 1911)
  • mixed member PR in 1994

Data sources online

News in English:

Coding comments

  • cabinet under same PM after elections starts when the cabinet is sworn in; legally no new cabinet (eg. Key II)
  • data sources on election results before 1945 are inconsistent; Vowles provides the most extensive information
  • for elections before 1945 electorate shows the number of registered voters in European constituencies; there was no electoral register in the four Maori constituencies

Poland

Data sources online

  • PKW -- National Electoral Commission

News in English:

References

  • Paszkiewicz, K., 2004. Partie i koalicje polityczne III Rzeczypospolitej 3rd ed., Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego. [party almanac]

Coding comments

  • Müller-Rommel ea. (2004) and Conrad/Golder (2010) code the 28/29 April 1993 as the begin of Suchocka II goverment, but it failed a confidence vote on 28 May 1993.

Open questions

  • seats of 'Democratic Left Alliance' and 'Labor Union' in parliament after [2001 election]
    • coding of [split of the alliance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Left_Alliance-Labor_Union]
  • SDLP 2005 election -- Zieloni and UP on SDLP list or an alliance
  • should Pawlak I government be kept? -- needs more explicit cabinet definition
  • exact date of PPPP split into PPG and MP unknown
  • party name change – UW to PD - exact day/month of the change?

Todo later

  • double-check and revise party coding (esp. successor/predecessor) with Paszkiewicz (2004)
  • re-coding of 1989 election
  • coding of SLD alliance members for elections
  • coding of changes in composition of parliament as documented in EJPR Political Data Yearbook

Portugal

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • Should 1975 assembly election and succeeding cabinets be excluded?
  • How long was ID party member of CDU alliance since 1987 election?
  • double checking of 1980 election -- PSD and PS alliance and district seats
  • Who and from which party was the third successful candidate in the CDU alliance in the EP election in 1987
  • Should BE election results be coded as electoral alliance with separate observations for alliance members?

Todo later

  • find primary sources for members of electoral alliances (currently Mackie/Rose (1991) and Wikipedia)

Romania

Information

  • district-ordered list system in 2008 and 2012 election
  • party-list PR since 2016
    • multi-seat districts (M=7)
    • 5% threshold for parties and 8 to 10% for electoral alliances

Data sources online

News in English

Todo later


Slovakia

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

  • Party of the Hungarian Coalition (MK)
    • seats distribution and parliamentary party group status in 1990
    • parliamentary party group status in 1990
  • exact seat strength of split parties in Moravcik cabinet
  • parliamentary status of Simko SDKU splinter group

Slovenia

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

  • Peterle cabinet parties need double checking and independent source

Todo later

  • number of votes and total votes for Italian and Hungarian national community seats

Sweden

Information

  • full male suffrage in 1909 and female suffrage in 1922
  • PR (D’Hondt) in 1909, 230 seats
    • 1952: Saint-Laguë; 1969: unicameral, 350 seats, upper tier, 4.0% threshold
  • cabinet investiture: no majority against cabinet (negative parliamentarism)

Data sources online

News in English:

References

  • Esaiasson, Peter. 1990. Svenska Valkampanjer 1866-1988. Stockholm: Allmänna förlaget.

Open questions

  • should the 1970 election be considered an 'early' election?
  • parties supporting minority governments and type of support -- experimental version
  • party change after elections of 1964 & 1968
    • what was the exact date of change or the date of opening session of the parliamentary term?

Turkey

Information

  • presidential system since 2018

Data sources online

News in English:

Comment

  • We decided to exlude Turkey, because the system of government changed to a presidential system.