# REFERENCE


# CODING RULES

Overview

We include elections and cabinets in established democracies. More specifically, we include democratic national lower house elections and EP elections for all EU and most OECD members. For the latter, we exclude presidential systems. We record all elections and succeeding cabinets after 1945 or after full democratization according to Boix ea. (2013).

We also include elections and cabinets before 1945. We record information after 1900 or after the last democratic transition (Boix ea. 2013). As of today, these observations are experimental and may need revision.

Parties

Coding rules

We include parties winning more than 1.0% vote share in elections we cover

Minor additions

We avoid including minor parties or candidates that win a seat only in one election due to low threshold requirements.

Party change

New parties are coded in 'party change' and 'party name change'.

Mergers and party splits are only added as a new party if the (largest) predecessor party won less than 75% of the combined vote of all preceding parties in the last election. Otherwise the largest party is just renamed.

Details

Party names

Party names are sentence case if no national (language) convention requires title case

Party names and delimiters · recoding to be finished

Year added to smaller party name if identical names exist in a country (eg. SVK SZ-92)

Party positions

We provide aggregated party positions in four major dimensions. These positions are time-invariant unweighted mean values of information from party expert surveys on a 0 to 10 scale. All expert surveys are linked with ids from the 'party' table and original values are rescaled before calculating the mean

Missing party positions for each dimension are imputed by mean values for the respective party family. We distinguish mean and imputed values by the number of decimal places. Mean values based on external datasets have five decimal places and imputed values have one decimal place only.

Variables and sources

Party families

We classify parties into families by their position in an economic (state/market) and a cultural (liberty/authority) left/right dimension.

The classification leads to eight party family categories: Communist/Socialist, Green/Ecologist, Social democracy, Liberal, Christian democracy, Agrarian, Conservative, Right-wing.

Parties that can not be classified into the eight categories are coded as 'spec' in the party table with more details in the party family table (e.g. AUT Martin). These are mainly special issue parties without a clear left/right positon.

We use one classification for the entire history of a party and do not record changes (e.g. FIN SP|P).

We add further information about party families in a separate table (see party family).

Elections

Coding rules

We include election results for

  1. all parties that won 1.0% vote share
  2. all parties that won 2 seats (esp. alliance members)

Details

Seats changes parliament composition

Earlier versions of ParlGov included only parties with seats in parliament and updating all countries to the 1.0% vote share rule was completed in December 2014.

Data sources

National elections

Main sources

Others

European parliament elections

Sorted by preference for coding selection

  1. official data source – national statistical office
  2. European Parliament (EP) election report (esp. 1979–1999) — based on official statistics
  3. EJPR yearbook (1990–today)

Cabinets

Cabinet definition

We record a new cabinet for these events (cf. Budge/Keman 1993: 10)

  1. any change of parties with cabinet membership
  2. any change of the prime minister
  3. any general election

All parties with ministers in cabinet are included (Indridason/Bowler 2014: 396)

  1. right to attend cabinet meetings
  2. right to cast vote before cabinet (if applicable)

Details

Examples

Damgaard (1994: 194-95) and Müller/Strom (2000: 12) provide a more comprehensive discussion of cabinet definitions.

Caretaker

Cabinets with a limited legislative mandate (cf. McDonnell/Valbruzzi 2014, 664)

Cabinet type

Government status (minority, minimum winning or surplus majority) is determined only by the seat share of government parties in parliament and not coded manually.

If there is an electoral alliance with separate seat shares but one of the parties is not a cabinet member, the government will be treated as a minority government (eg. UK 1951). Similarly, if any of the governing parties can be removed and the other governing parties still hold a majority in parliament, the cabinet is considered to be a surplus majority cabinet.

Cabinet termination

Experimental version only — coding incomplete

Coding rule: The same events that define a new government are used to define the termination date of a government. Cabinets may remain in office for a short period after the initial terminal event. The 'description' field should give a short description of events other than an election that led to the fall of a government and these events should be coded in 'data_json' entries.

Confidence votes

Experimental version only — coding incomplete

Confidence votes are added for all recent cabinets but are not included for all cabinets in ParlGov.

Details

Presidents

We include all party-affiliated heads of state. Short-term acting presidents are not included. See table president.

Data sources

For new cabinets and revisions of observations, we derive information about cabinet termination from news sources, preferably from the news agencies Reuters, AFP or the main national news agency

For West European countries we double checked our initial observations with the data in Müller/Strom (2000). For Central- and Eastern European countries we compared our information to Müller-Rommel ea. (2008).


# COUNTRIES

Country notes

Summary of main institutional rules and respective changes, data and news sources, references, coding comments, open questions and remaining tasks.

Electoral system information from CLEA country descriptions (Appendix I), ESCE country summaries, IPU-PARLINE electoral system summary, Mackie and Rose (1991), Rokkan and Meyriat (1969)

Cabinet information in Müller and Strøm (2000) and Bergman ea. (2019), see also ERDDA.se data.

Country information about democratisation from Boix ea. (2013).

Abbreviations — proportional representation (PR), single transferable vote (STV)

Additional sourcesV-Dem and PIPE data – female suffrage (🔗)

Note: This is an evolving and incomplete documentation of country specific information.

Australia

Information

Data sources online

News in English

References

Coding comments

Todo later

Austria

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Belgium

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Coding comments

Bulgaria

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Todo later

Canada

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments

Switzerland

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Coding comments

Todo later

Cyprus

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Coding comments

Todo later

Czech Republic

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Germany

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments

References

Denmark

Information

Data sources online

News in English

References

Coding comments

Todo later

Spain

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Coding comments

Todo later

Estonia

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Todo later

Finland

Information

Data sources online

News in English

References

Open questions

Coding comments

Todo later

France

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments

Open questions

Todo later

United Kingdom

Information

Coding comments

Data sources online

References

Open questions 2011 coding – to be checked and updated

Todo later

Greece

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Todo later

Croatia

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Coding comments

Todo later

Hungary

Data sources online

Coding comments

Ireland

Information

Data sources online

News in English

References

Coding comments

Iceland

Information

Data sources online

News in English

References

Coding comments

Israel

Information

Data sources online

Coding comments

Italy

Data sources online

News in English:

Coding Comments

Open Questions

Japan

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

Todo later

Lithuania

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Coding Comments

Open questions

Todo later

Luxembourg

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments

Latvia

Data sources online

News in English:

Open questions

Todo later

Malta

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments:

Netherlands

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Norway

Information (Rokkan and Meyriat 1969, 262)

Data sources online

News in English

References

Todo later

New Zealand

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Coding comments

Poland

Data sources online

News in English:

References

Coding comments

Open questions

Todo later

Portugal

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Todo later

Romania

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Todo later

Slovakia

Data sources online

News in English

Open questions

Slovenia

Data sources online

News in English

Todo later

Sweden

Information

Data sources online

News in English

References

Open questions

Turkey

Information

Data sources online

News in English

Comment


# CONTRIBUTORS

Project leaders

Institutional affiliation

Major contributors

Open source software

Icons and pictures

Contributors

We would like to thank the following people for contributing facts, support, ideas, and encouragement.


# CHANGES

Development version

New information

Documentation

Corrections and updates

Webpage

Database

Version 2018

Stable version released on 1 May 2018.

Data

New information

Corrections and updates

Database

Version 2015

Stable version released on 12 March 2016

Data

New information

Corrections and updates

Webpage

Database

Version 14/12

Stable version 29 December 2014

Data

New information

Corrections and updates

Webpage

Database

Version 13/12

Data

New information

Corrections and updates

Webpage

Database

Version 12/10

Stable version 15 October 2012

Data

New information

Corrections and updates

Webpage

Database

Version 11/07

Stable version 26 July 2011

Data

New information

Corrections and updates

Webpage

Database

Version 10/11

Stable version 16 November 2010

Summary

Data

New information

Corrections

Webpage

Database